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【必威】中国虎的最后100年:杀戮与疯狂



发布日期:2021-03-20 08:10:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

When more than 100 tigers swarmed around the village, in September 1957, the villagers in Gaoping Village, Tongdao County, Hunan, located at the foot of Xuefeng Mountain, would never dream that they had experienced the three most terrifying days and nights of their lives. .

1957年9月,当100多只老虎蜂拥而至时,位于雪峰山脚下的湖南省通道县高坪村的村民们再也没有梦想过他们经历了人生中三个最恐怖的夜晚。 。

Xie Yaozong, who experienced this horrible incident in those days, was a merchandiser who collected mountain products in Xuefeng Mountain all the year round. He recalled that not long after he walked into Gaoping Village at that time, he suddenly saw the cattle grazing outside the village fleeing wild When I came back, all the dogs in the village shivered and dared not make a sound. At this time, someone at the entrance of the village began to beat the gong desperately, calling out the villagers to rush into the village to escape.

当时经历了这一可怕事件的谢耀宗,是一个常年在雪峰山收集山产品的商人。他回忆说,当时他走进高坪村,没多久,他突然看到村外放牧的牛群逃离野外。当我回来时,村里的所有狗都瑟瑟发抖,不敢发出声音。这时,村庄入口处有人开始拼命殴打锣,呼唤村民冲进村庄逃生。

It turned out that around the entire village, more than 100 tigers actually surrounded the village. For the next three days and three nights, no matter how the villagers lit the fire and beat the gong, the tigers just refused to leave and continued for three full days. Three nights later, the frightened villagers figured out the whole story. It turned out that someone in the village picked up a few tiger cubs on the mountain and brought them back to the village. However, after releasing a few small tigers, the besie Dispersed, and seemed to have lost their worries, and began to rush into Gaoping Village in a collective frenzy. After killing all the livestock in the village and dragging them away, they also took away three mothers and daughters from the village.

事实证明,在整个村庄周围,实际上有100多只老虎包围了村庄。在接下来的三天三夜里,无论村民们如何用火点火和打锣,老虎们都拒绝离开并继续整整三天。三晚后,受惊的村民们弄清楚了整个故事。原来,村里有人在山上捡了几只虎崽,带回村里。但是,放开了几只小老虎之后,蜜蜂分散了,似乎不再担心了,开始在集体的狂热中冲入高坪村。在杀死村庄里的所有牲畜并将其拖走后,他们还从村庄带走了三个母女。

Li Huaide, an old villager of Gaoping Village, later recalled: “The tiger was eating people badly. Three mothers together, the girl who carried it to the mountain was still crying.”

高坪村的老村民李怀德后来回忆说:“老虎在吃东西,人多了。三个母亲在一起,把它带到山上的女孩还在哭。”

Regarding this “fantastic incident” that sounds like a fantasy, but is a real event, although since the beginning of the Qing dynasty, there have been constant mentions of the “Five Years of Shunzhi (1648) Changsha Fuhu” in the chronicles and county chronicles of Hunan. Daytime cannibalism" and "Yiyang tigers walked and cannibalized in the sixth year of Shunzhi (1658)", but humans are still unbelievable. With a distance of more than 300 years, the tiger infestation in Hunan has reached such a terrifying level.

关于这听起来像是一个幻想,却是真实的“奇妙事件”,尽管自清朝开始以来,编年史和县里就不断提到“顺治五年(1648年)长沙抚湖”。湖南志。白天的自相残杀”和“益阳虎在顺治六年(1658年)走过并被人吞食”,但人类仍然难以置信。距今已有300多年的历史了,湖南虎的侵扰达到了如此恐怖的程度。

And Gaoping Village is just an amazing representative of the tiger infestation in Hunan and even in China. In fact, from 1952 to 1962, the entire Hunan Province fell into a decade-long hungry tiger disaster. Over the past ten years, more than 2,000 people have been killed in Hunan Province. On the highest peak, 32 people in Hunan Province were eaten by tigers.

高坪村只是湖南乃至中国老虎出没的惊人代表。实际上,从1952年到1962年,整个湖南省陷入了长达十年之久的饥饿老虎灾难。在过去的十年中,湖南省有2000多人丧生。最高峰时,湖南省有32人被老虎吃掉。

If the historical data is not conclusive, this is an incredibly true event anyway. To

如果历史数据不是结论性的,那么无论如何这都是一个难以置信的真实事件。至

In the impression of contemporary people, the tiger seems to be a solitary animal according to the textbook. However, countless historical materials tell us that this is not the whole truth.

在当代人的印象中,根据教科书,老虎似乎是孤独的动物。但是,无数的历史资料告诉我们,这不是全部。

In fact, as early as 300 years before the horrific Baihuwei Village incident in Gaoping Village, Tonghua, Hunan, during the Kangxi period, Ouyang Zhi, a Sichuan native, recorded the tiger infestation in Sichuan at that time in his book "Shu Rebellion" and said: "Everywhere Tigers, or groups of ten or twenty, or seven or eight on the same road, go beyond the house on the wall, board the boat and climb the stairs on the floating water.

实际上,早在康熙时期湖南通化高坪村的百虎围村惨案发生之前的300年,四川本地人欧阳志就在他的《蜀叛乱》一书中记录了当时四川的老虎侵扰。并说:“在同一条道路上,到处都有四十只老虎,或者十只或二十只,七只或八只成群的老虎,越过墙壁上的房屋,登上船,在水面上爬楼梯。

Regarding the situation where tigers in Sichuan province were in groups and rampant, Ouyang Zhi pointed out in the book that "this is unheard of in ancient times, and people do not believe in it." He wrote: "The rest of the journey is in the middle of the grass, under the moon. I saw the four tigers passing by; and in the southern Zhouzhou, I saw a group of tigers on the sands, like herding sheep, all large and numerous. After passing the Luzhou Zhouzhong, I saw dozens of tigers on the shore walking along the riverside, in file."

关于四川老虎成群结队和猖ramp的情况,欧阳志在书中指出:“这在古代是闻所未闻的,人们不相信。”他写道:“剩下的旅程是在草丛中,在月光之下。我看到四只老虎经过;在周州南部,我看到一群老虎在沙滩上,像羊群一样,在经过the州周中之后,我看到有几十只老虎在河边沿岸行走,有据可查。”

Sichuan in the early years of Kangxi, at this time, after decades of war, plague and famine in the late Ming and early Qing, the population of the entire Sichuan Province dropped from more than 6 million in the late Ming Dynasty to less than 500,000. 90% of the province’s population was lost. “The people within thousands of miles in the whole of Shu are less than the people in a county in another province.” After the massive population demise, the tigers in Sichuan began to rush into the original human territories and gnawed frantically. Eating the remaining humans in Sichuan Province, Ouyang Zhi wrote about this: “In most Sichuan people, eight out of ten people died of thieves, two out of ten people died of starvation, and the only ones who survived died of tiger’s mouth.”

康熙初年的四川,此时,经过明末清初的数十年战争,瘟疫和饥荒,整个四川省的人口从明末的600万下降到不足50万。该省90%的人口丧生。 “整个蜀国数千英里以内的人少于另一个省的一个县的人。”大规模的人口灭绝后,四川的老虎开始冲入人类的原始领土,疯狂地gna食。欧阳志在吃完四川省剩下的人类时写道:“在大多数四川人中,十分之八的人死于小偷,十分之二的人死于饥饿,唯一幸存的人死于虎口。”

The so-called troubled times come out of evildoers, Zhao Biaozhao, a man from the Kangxi period, pointed out in his book "Talking about the Tiger": During the Shunzhi period (1643-1661), "the tigers were infested in Sichuan, a group of hundreds, or supporting the rafters in the middle of the night," All the young and old in the room."

所谓的困难时期是邪恶的,康熙时期的人赵标钊在他的《谈虎》中指出:顺治时期(1643-1661年),“老虎在四川出没” ,成百上千的人,或在深夜支撑supporting子,“房间里的年轻人和老人”。

At that time, Sichuan was experiencing long and large-scale wars, plagues, and sparsely populated areas after the disaster. Huang Mengbu, the magistrate of Nanchong, Sichuan, reported to his superiors that he had recruited 506 residents in Nanchong, but he did not expect this group of people. 228 people were eaten by tigers, 55 people died of illness, "223 people now"; Huang Mengbu did not give up and recruited 74 people to settle in Nanchong. Unexpectedly, 42 of these 74 people were eaten by tigers. .

那时,四川在灾难后经历了长期的大规模战争,瘟疫和人烟稀少的地区。四川南充县长黄孟部向上级报告说,他在南充招募了506名居民,但他没想到这群人。老虎吃掉了228人,死了55人,“现在有223人”;黄梦部不死心,招募了74人定居南充。出乎意料的是,这74个人中有42个人被老虎吃掉了。 。

In the twenty-first year of Kangxi (1682), the newly appointed prefectural county of Rongchang, Sichuan, Zhang Maochang and his 7 entourage arrived in Rongchang County to take office. Unexpectedly, when they entered the county seat, they found that the whole city was dead and empty, "wormwood was everywhere." Just as everyone was wondering, a group of tigers suddenly jumped out. Zhang Mao hurriedly fled for their lives in terror, but they were ferocious. In a blink of an eye, five of Zhang Mao’s seven followers were killed. under.

康熙二十一年(1682年),新任命的四川荣昌县,张茂昌一行7人抵达荣昌县就职。出乎意料的是,当他们进入县城时,发现整个城市已经空无一人,“到处都是艾草”。就像每个人都想知道的那样,一群老虎突然跳了出来。张茂匆忙逃离了恐怖的生活,但他们凶猛。眨眼间,张茂的七个追随者中有五个被杀。下。

In this regard, Liu Shixi, who had experienced this period of crazy tiger infestation in Sichuan during the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, made a rough estimate of the population of Sichuan who died of tiger infestations in the early Qing Dynasty in "Shu Guijian": "The five years since Chongzhen ( 1632) was the beginning of the Shu Rebellion, and it was decided after the Kangxi three years (1664). In more than 30 years, southern Sichuan "died from the plague tiger twelve and three", northern Sichuan "died from the plague tiger on the eleventh", and eastern Sichuan "die "The Twelve-Three" of the Plague Tigers", and the "Eleventh-two of the Plague Tigers" in Western Sichuan.

在这方面,在明末清初在四川经历过老虎疯狂侵染的时期的刘世熙,在《蜀贵坚》中粗略估计了清初在四川死于老虎侵扰的人口。 ”:“自崇真(1632)起五年是蜀叛乱的起点,是在康熙三年(1664)之后决定的。在30多年的时间里,四川南部“死于鼠疫十二和三”四川北部“死于鼠疫虎”,四川东部“死于鼠疫虎”的“十二三”,四川西部死于“虎鼠十二一”。

Even in the period of the Republic of China, in 1930, in Jintang Street, the main city of Chongqing, Sichuan warlord Tang Shizun, who was the commander of the 32nd Division of the Sichuan Army at the time, had a feast of guests in the mansion one night, when suddenly a tiger broke into the hall of the Tang mansion. Everyone was shocked and panicked. Tang Shizun's guard hurriedly shot the tiger to death. The next day, Tang Shizun invited guests to come to eat tiger meat in order to comfort the guests, and called it "Tiger Banquet." To

甚至在民国时期,1930年,在当时的重庆军区第32师司令员四川军阀唐世尊在重庆主要城市金塘街上,都举行了盛宴。一天晚上,猛虎突然闯入唐府的大厅。每个人都感到震惊和恐慌。唐时尊的后卫赶紧将老虎杀死。第二天,唐世尊邀请客人来吃老虎肉以使客人感到舒适,并称其为“虎宴”。至

In fact, in the Qing Dynasty and even the Republic of China, and even in the early 1950s of New China, there have been endless records of tigers breaking into cities.

实际上,在清代甚至中华民国,甚至在新中国的1950年代初期,都有无数的关于老虎闯入城市的记录。

On the third day of December in the third year of Yongzheng (1725), a big tiger broke into the city of Beijing and wandered around. This tiger first appeared in Beijing’s Dongbianmen area, then rushed to the front gate of the capital, and turned into the original Chuanshan in Xijiang Mi Alley. In the governor Nian Gengyao's mansion, the tiger was shot and bombarded by the Beijing garrison troops, and then stabbed to death with a long spear until the day after entering Beijing.

雍正三年(1225年)的12月第三天,一只大老虎闯入北京,四处游荡。这只老虎最初出现在北京的东边门地区,然后冲到首都的前门,变成了西江小巷的原始船山。在总督念根尧的宅邸中,老虎被北京守备队开枪并轰炸,然后用长矛将其刺死,直到进入北京的第二天。

Regarding this anecdote of the tiger entering the capital, Emperor Yongzheng was on the memorial to the governor of Zhili, Cai Ting, when Zhu wrote the tiger's entry event and said: "There is such a strange event (the tiger enters the city)... Old and rare things too."

关于老虎进入首都的轶事,雍正皇帝是直隶总督蔡挺的纪念馆,朱Zhu写道老虎进入事件时说:“发生了一件奇怪的事件(老虎进入城市)。 ..古老而罕见的事物。”

In fact, until 1957, there were records of tigers near the Miyun Tombs in Beijing.

实际上,直到1957年,北京密云陵墓附近才有老虎的记录。

According to studies by zoologists, tigers originated in China about 2 million years ago, but gradually spread to other regions of Asia and gradually evolved into 9 subspecies. These 9 subspecies are the South China tiger and the Siberian tiger (Siberian tiger). , Bengal tiger, Indochinese tiger (Southeast Asian tiger), Malay tiger, Sumatran tiger, Caspian tiger (Xinjiang tiger), Java tiger and Bari tiger.

根据动物学家的研究,老虎起源于大约200万年前的中国,但逐渐传播到亚洲其他地区,并逐渐演变成9个亚种。这9个亚种是华南虎和西伯利亚虎(Siberian Tiger)。 ,孟加拉虎,印度支那虎(东南亚虎),马来虎,苏门答腊虎,里海虎(新疆虎),爪哇虎和巴里虎。

It is estimated that at the end of the 19th century, there were about 100,000 wild tigers in the world. However, with the continuous advancement of human development, by the 20th century, there were three tigers: Caspian tiger (Xinjiang tiger), Java tiger and Bari tiger. These species have been extinct one after another, but during this period, the South China tiger and the Siberian tiger were still raging everywhere in China.

据估计,到19世纪末,世界上大约有100,000只野生虎。但是,随着人类发展的不断进步,到20世纪,已经有了三只老虎:里海虎(新疆虎),爪哇虎和巴里虎。这些物种已经灭绝,但是在此期间,华南虎和西伯利亚虎仍在中国各地肆虐。

As early as the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wang Chong mentioned in "Lunheng·Being the Tiger" that at that time tigers often broke into the cities of the Eastern Han Empire, "the tiger entered the town and walked among the people." In the Tang Dynasty, it became an empire. Around the capital city of Chang'an, there are still tigers infestation. In this regard, the Tang Dynasty poet Zhang Ji (approximately 766—approximately 830) mentioned the surrounding area of ​​Chang'an in his book "The Tiger's Walk": Walk around the forest in the daytime."

王充早在东汉时期就在《论衡·做老虎》中提到,老虎经常闯入东汉帝国的城市,“老虎进城走走,走在人们中间。”在唐朝,它成为一个帝国。在首都长安周围,仍然有老虎出没。在这方面,唐代诗人张吉(约766-约830)在他的《老虎的行进》中提到了长安的周边地区:白天在森林中漫步。

During the Jin Xuanzong period (1163-1224), which was the same period as the Southern Song Dynasty, there were still records of tiger cannibalism in Kaifeng Prefecture, which was once the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty. Those who are worth twenty taels of silver, and the wounded are given medicine from the inner government."

在与南宋同一时期的金宣宗时期(1163-1224年),开封地区仍然有老虎食人的记录,该地区曾是北宋的首都。那些价值二十两白银和受伤者的人将从内部政府那里获得药品。”

From the 1st century to the 13th century, even in the vicinity of the capital, the Chinese empire was full of tigers, and this situation will intensify with the explosion of the Chinese population.

从1世纪到13世纪,即使在首都附近,中国帝国也充满了老虎,随着中国人口的激增,这种情况将会加剧。

In the third year of Emperor Huan’s eternal life in the Eastern Han Dynasty (157 years), the Chinese population was 56.48 million at that time. In the first year of Yongle, the first year of the Ming Dynasty (1403), the Chinese population was 66.59 million. However, in the eighteenth year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1753), China The population exceeded 100 million for the first time. In the 13th year of Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty (1833), the Chinese population exploded to 398 million.

欢庆皇帝在东汉永世第三年(157年),当时的中国人口为5648万。永乐元年(明朝元年)(1403年),中国人口为6659万。然而,在清朝乾隆十八年(1753年),中国人口首次超过了1亿。清道光十三年(1833年),中国人口激增至3.98亿。

The population explosion means that human beings continue to develop the forest wasteland, and the tiger’s habitat is constantly being oppressed. Under this scenario, after entering the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as the original sparsely populated land continues to develop, humans and tigers The conflicts began to intensify and were widely recorded in various historical materials such as local chronicles and literati diaries.

人口激增意味着人类继续开发森林荒地,老虎的栖息地不断受到压迫。在这种情况下,进入明清后,随着原始稀少的土地的不断发展,人类和老虎之间的冲突开始加剧,并广泛记录在各种历史资料中,例如地方志和文人文学。

After experiencing long-term wars and tigers in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, the Qing government began to call on the people to go to Sichuan for farming in the early years of the Qing dynasty. The rapidly shrinking population began to resume growth. It was during the development of Xixiang County in southern Shaanxi. During the Kangxi period, the tiger infestation in Xixiang County made people tremble. At that time, Xixiang County "not special tiger tracks crossed the suburbs, and Entering the city at midnight hurts the people and the livestock".

在明末清初经历了长期的战争和老虎斗争后,清政府在清初开始呼吁人民去四川务农。迅速减少的人口开始恢复增长。当时是陕南西乡县的发展时期。康熙时期,西乡县的老虎出没使人们发抖。当时,西乡县“没有特殊的虎径横渡郊区,午夜进入市区会伤及人畜。”

For this reason, Wang Mu, the magistrate of Xixiang County in southern Shaanxi, specially recruited dozens of warriors to kill tigers. "The capturer Guisi (1713) to Yiwei (1715) shot tigers out of sixty out of four." From 1713 to 1715, short In just two years, only the official tiger fighting team organized by Xixiang County shot and killed six to ten tigers. The tiger infestation in Shaanxi was also evident at that time. To

因此,陕西南部西乡县县长王牧特意招募了数十名战士来杀死老虎。 “俘虏桂丝(1713年)至伊维(1715年)将老虎中的老虎中的六十分之一击中。”从1713年到1715年,短短的两年内,只有西乡县组织的官方老虎格斗队开枪杀死了六到十只老虎。当时在陕西,老虎的侵扰也很明显。至

Tiger infestations were rampant during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In addition to population growth and the destruction of a large number of tiger habitats, the climatic factors during the Ming and Qing Dynasties were also one of the reasons for the serious tiger infestations during this period.

在明清时期,老虎侵扰猖were。除了人口增长和大批老虎栖息地的破坏之外,明清时期的气候因素也是这一时期老虎严重侵害的原因之一。

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the climate in China was very cold at that time, known as the "Ming and Qing Little Ice Age". During this period, even in the Jiangxi region south of the Yangtze River, there were often abnormal cold such as "big cold" and "heavy snow for several days" Weather, according to Xu Huailin's "Interaction and Changes of Economic Development and Ecological Environment in Jiangxi History", there were 64 droughts in Jiangxi during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, 3.2 times the number of floods during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, and 151 floods.

明清时期,中国的气候非常寒冷,被称为“明清小冰河时代”。根据徐怀麟的《经济发展与生态环境的相互作用和变化》,在此期间,即使在长江以南的江西地区,也经常出现异常寒冷,如“大寒冷”和“连续几天大雪”。 《江西历史》中,明清江西发生旱灾64次,是宋元洪水的3.2倍,洪水151次。

Due to the frequent occurrence of floods and droughts during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the rivers dried up, the grass withered, and a large number of herbivores died, which affected the tiger’s living environment. In addition, the habitat was increasingly being eroded and destroyed by humans. Suffering gradually entered the highest period in history. Take the 20th year of Kangxi (1681) as an example. In that year, the Yugan County of Jiangxi "drought severely in autumn, and tigers wounded people, and continued year after year." In the sixth year of Xianfeng (1856), Jiangxi Germany Huaxian County "has a severe drought. It has not rained for more than two hundred days from summer to winter. Pengze has a long life. In July, the tigers in Tanjiaban, Dongxiang, Dehua, can eat people during the day and the tigers cross the village at night."

由于明清时期洪水和干旱的频繁发生,河流干dried了,草枯了,大量草食动物死亡,这影响了老虎的生活环境。此外,栖息地正日益被人类侵蚀和破坏。苦难逐渐进入历史最高时期。以康熙二十年(1681年)为例。那年,江西余干县“秋天严重干旱,老虎伤人,年复一年。”咸丰六年(1856年),江西德国华县发生了严重干旱。从夏至冬季,降雨未超过200天。彭泽寿命长。7月,东乡谭家ban的老虎德化(Dehua)白天可以吃东西,而老虎则在晚上穿过村庄。”

Under the influence of human erosion and invasion and natural disasters, from the end of the Ming Dynasty to the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, records of tigers in groups and rampant haunts began to appear in local chronicles all over China.

在人类侵蚀,入侵和自然灾害的影响下,自明末至清初,成群的老虎和猖ha的缠身记录开始在中国各地的编年史中出现。

Take Shanghai as an example. According to local chronicles, there are 25 tiger infestations in Shanghai (1 in the Yuan Dynasty, 14 in the Ming Dynasty, and 10 in the Qing Dynasty). Among them, in the second year of the Ming Dynasty (1437), the area near Wusong, Baoshan, Shanghai Tigers appeared in groups, biting and biting as many as 65 people. "Sometimes there was a roar and roar, and the autumn wind was violent for ten miles." As a result, "the residents were innocent and the cries were in the sky at midnight."

以上海为例。根据地方志,上海有25只老虎出没(元代1只,明代14只,清代10只)。其中,在明朝第二年(1437年),吴,、宝山,上海虎附近地区成群结队,叮咬着多达65人。 “有时会咆哮,秋风猛烈十英里。”结果,“居民是无辜的,哭声在午夜时分在空中。”

In the fifteenth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1658), at Weixi Pass, Jinshan near the county seat of Shanghai, a tiger rushed directly into the city. After a round in the city, it "roared and left without knowing what to do". At that time, four soldiers tried to capture the tiger, but all four were killed by it.

清朝顺治十五年(1658年),在上海县城附近的金山围溪关,一只老虎直接冲进了这座城市。在城市中转了一圈之后,它“咆哮着离开,不知所措”。当时,有四名士兵试图俘获老虎,但全部四人被老虎杀死。

Although there are endless records of tiger infestations in the south, from the Ming and Qing dynasties, the tigers in the north have gradually decreased and even disappeared.

尽管南方有无数的老虎出没记录,但自明清以来,北部的老虎逐渐减少甚至消失。

Take Liaocheng, Shandong, where Jingyanggang where Wusong fights tigers was recorded in the novel "Water Margin" in the novel "Water Margin" in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties as an example. After the "Yanzhou Fuzhi" in the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty (1573-1619) listed as orthodox historical data, There is no record of "there is a tiger". And another famous tiger-infested place in the "Water Margin", Li Kui angrily killed a nest of four tigers in Yizhou (now Linyi, Shandong), to the Qing Dynasty Kangxi thirteenth year (1674) after the "Yizhou Zhi", The record of tigers also disappeared.

以山东聊城为例,元末明初小说《水Mar传》中记载了吴s打虎的景阳岗。自明朝万历年间(1573-1619)的“ Y州扶植”被列为正统史料以来,尚无“有虎”记载。在“水Mar传”中另一个出名的老虎出没的地方,李Ku在“宜州之志”后清朝康熙十三年(1674年)在宜州(今山东临沂)愤怒地杀死了四只老虎的巢。老虎的记录也消失了。

After the Manchu Dynasty entered the Pass, the Qing imperial family first banned the Northeast as the "Longxing Land", which allowed the Siberian tigers to proliferate. During this period, the Qing imperial family often went to the Northeast to hunt tigers, only in the 21st year of Kangxi (1682). Emperor Kangxi visited Shengjing (now Shenyang) to the east, "at such a distance of more than nine hundred miles, he hunted continuously throughout the day," and "there were more than sixty tigers that stopped."

满族进入关卡后,清朝皇室首先禁止东北成为“龙兴地”,这使西伯利亚虎得以繁衍。在此期间,仅在康熙二十一年(1682年),清朝皇室经常去东北狩猎老虎。康熙皇帝访问了东部的圣井(今沉阳),“他在九百多英里的距离内,全天不断狩猎”,“有六十多只老虎停下来了”。

At that time, the royal hunting team of the Qing Dynasty often besieged tigers in groups, and then waited for the emperor to hunt them down personally. "The emperor shot them, or the prince shot them. The princes and ministers did not dare to make a shot in the encirclement. In the hunting and killing of "Sit and Reap", in the fifty-eighth year of Kangxi (1719), Emperor Kangxi recalled that he "since his childhood, wherever he used shotguns and bows to obtain 135 tigers."

那时,清朝的皇家狩猎队经常将老虎围成一团,然后等待皇帝亲自猎杀它们。 “皇帝向他们开枪,或者王子向他们开枪。王子和大臣们不敢在包围中开枪。在康熙八十八年(1719年)的狩猎和杀戮中,“坐下来收割”。康熙皇帝回忆说,他“从小就在任何地方使用shot弹枪和弓箭获得135只老虎”。

Kangxi can also be called the first emperor to kill the tiger in ancient and modern times.

康熙也可以称为古代和近代杀老虎的第一位皇帝。

In the late Qing Dynasty, the Qing government began to open the Northeast. Taking Fengtian (Liaoning) as an example, its population soared from 2.58 million in the first year of Xianfeng (1851) to 11 million in 1908. As the population continues to multiply and expand, Liaoning’s records of the Siberian tiger are also disappearing. "Old records about the Hulan Duo Tiger... Since its release, the population has become denser, the leaves and mosses are interconnected, and the villages are facing each other. In Lanzhou".

清末,清政府开始向东北开放。以奉天(辽宁)为例,其人口从咸丰元年(1851年)的第一年的258万猛增到1908年的1100万。随着人口的不断增加和扩大,辽宁对西伯利亚虎的记录也在消失。 “关于呼兰两只老虎的旧记录……自释放以来,人口变得更加密布,树叶和苔藓相互连接,村庄彼此面对。在兰州”。

The "Shengjing Tongzhi" written in the early years of Qianlong records that tigers "are found in all mountains" in the Northeast, while in the Northeast local chronicles during the Republic of China, it is mostly "there were in the past, but not seen today." Even so, in the period of the Republic of China, Northeast King Zhang Zuolin was still very interested in eating tiger meat. At that time, tigers in Liaoning had almost disappeared. For this reason, every winter season, Zhang Zuolin ordered tigers from Heilongjiang, Jilin and other places to send some tiger meat to the mansion. At that time, the famous chef Zhao Lianbi cooked tiger delicacies such as "Tiger Meat Roasted Fresh Bamboo Shoots", "Tiger Meat Meatballs Roasted Snow Lily", "Ginger Silk Tiger Meat Stir-Fried Fresh Bamboo Shoots", "Tiger Meat Stewed Carrots", etc., are Zhang Zuolin's best. Love. To

乾隆初年写的《盛京同治》记载,东北东北“四面八方”有老虎,而民国时期东北地方志则大多是“过去,但没有”。今天见过。”即使这样,在民国时期,东北国王张作霖对吃老虎肉仍然很感兴趣。当时,辽宁的老虎几乎消失了。因此,每个冬季,张作霖都命令黑龙江,吉林等地的老虎向豪宅派一些老虎肉。当时,著名厨师赵连壁烹制了“老虎肉烤鲜笋”,“老虎肉丸烤雪莲”,“姜丝老虎肉炒鲜笋”,“老虎红萝卜”等老虎美食。 ”,等等,都是张作霖最好的。爱。至

At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, just as the Siberian tiger was retreating, in Xinjiang, the Xinjiang tiger (Caspian tiger) gradually came to the edge of extinction.

在清末民初,正当西伯利亚虎退缩之时,新疆的新疆虎(里海虎)逐渐濒临灭绝。

In 1876, Russian Przewalski came to Lop Nur at the end of the Tarim River in Xinjiang for an expedition. On the first night of camping in Lop Nur, Przewalski and his party were all awakened by the sound of a long tiger roar. The horse neighed in horror, and Przewalski later recalled that there were still "as many tigers as the (Russian) Volga wolf" in Xinjiang during this period.

1876年,俄国人普热瓦尔斯基来到新疆塔里木河尽头的罗布泊(Lop Nur)进行探险。在罗布泊(Lop Nur)露营的第一天晚上,普雷萨瓦尔斯基(Przewalski)和他的同伴都被老虎的长吼声惊醒。这匹马惊恐地叫了起来,随后普热瓦尔斯基回忆说,在此期间,新疆仍然有“和(俄国)伏尔加河狼一样多的老虎”。

In 1899, the Swedish explorer Sven Heding also arrived in Lop Nur. During this period, Lop Nur had become a desert that was difficult for humans to survive due to the depletion of water sources. However, on the first night Sven Heding came, he was still frightened by the tiger. In Sven Heding’s investigation report, he left a sketch of a tiger falling in a trap: A tiger trapped in a Robe’s In the trap, the front left paw was clamped by a circular clip, and the tiger squatted up and howled, seeming to want to jump out of the trap.

1899年,瑞典探险家Sven Heding也到达了罗布泊。在此期间,罗布泊(Lop Nur)已成为沙漠,由于水源枯竭,人类难以生存。然而,在斯文·海丁(Sven Heding)来到的第一个晚上,他仍然被老虎吓坏了。在Sven Heding的调查报告中,他留下了一只老虎掉入陷阱的草图:一只老虎被困在长袍的陷阱中。在陷阱中,左前爪被圆形夹子夹住,老虎蹲下并qua叫,似乎想要跳出陷阱。

But Xinjiang tigers were gradually on the verge of extinction. By the end of 1927, German explorer Emil Trinkler reported that the Robb told him that he hadn't seen tigers in nearly two to thirty years. A hunter in Bachu, Xinjiang, told him that the last tiger on the banks of the Yeerqiang River died in 1916.

但是新疆虎逐渐濒临灭绝。到1927年底,德国探险家埃米尔·特林勒(Emil Trinkler)报告说,罗伯告诉他,他已经有近两到30年没有见过老虎了。新疆巴楚的一位猎人告诉他,叶尔强河两岸的最后一只老虎死于1916年。

In 1934, Sven Heding came to Tarim again. An old Robb told him that more than ten years ago, an old tiger slowly walked up the Tarim River along the woodland along the river bank. Sven Heding first made the judgment that Xinjiang tigers have disappeared.

1934年,斯文·海丁(Sven Heding)再次来到塔里木。一只老罗布告诉他,十多年前,一只老老虎沿着河岸的林地缓缓地走上塔里木河。斯文·海丁(Sven Heding)首先做出了新疆老虎不见了的判断。

According to the Records of Xinjiang’s Bayinguo Leng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, some people in the prefecture once shot a tiger with a gun from 1961 to 1962. Professor Gu Jinghe, a zoologist at the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said: The extinction of Xinjiang tigers was around the 1960s. The last time I saw a tiger was in Huocheng (Ili area of ​​Xinjiang). The tiger hunted was made into specimens."

根据新疆巴音郭楞蒙古族自治州的记录,1961年至1962年,该州有人曾用枪射击老虎。中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所动物学家顾敬和教授表示: :新疆老虎的灭绝是在1960年代左右。我最后一次看到老虎是在火城(新疆伊犁地区)。被猎杀的老虎被制成标本。”

With the large-scale retreat of the Siberian tiger and the extinction of the Xinjiang tiger, the South China tiger has also reached the end of the road and has begun to send its final roar to mankind.

随着西伯利亚虎的大规模撤退和新疆虎的灭绝,华南虎也走到了尽头,并开始将最终的怒吼传给人类。

In Xuwen, Guangdong, there were still more than 1,000 square kilometers of tropical rainforest in the county before 1949. The great scholar Qu Dajun of the Qing Dynasty recorded in "Guangdong Xinyu": Guangdong "Gao (zhou), Lei (zhou) ), Lian (Jiang) three counties and more tigers."

1949年以前,在广东徐闻,该县仍然有超过1000平方公里的热带雨林。《广东新余》中记载了清朝的著名学者曲大军:广东“高(周),雷(周)” ,连(江)三个县和更多的老虎。”

However, with the continuous disappearance of the tropical rain forests in Xuwen County, tigers' contact with humans has become increasingly dense. According to the statistics of the Xuwen Chamber of Commerce in Guangdong, from 1916 to 1933, at that time, more than 300 people died from tigers in Xuwen County every year. Not only that, at that time the tiger in Xuwen of Guangdong even broke into the county town for harm. In the 1930s, when Chen Tong, the county magistrate of Xuwen, Guangdong, returned from work in the evening, there was a tiger lying at the door of Xuwen County Government. Thinking it was a cow, Chen Tong was frightened and hurriedly escaped from the county government's door and escaped into the hospital after he approached and found it was a tiger.

然而,随着徐闻县热带雨林的不断消失,老虎与人类的接触日益紧密。据广东徐闻商会的统计,从1916年到1933年,每年徐闻县有300多人死于老虎。不仅如此,当时广东徐闻的老虎甚至因伤害进入县城。 1930年代,广东徐闻县县长陈彤晚上下班回来时,徐闻县政府门口躺着一只老虎。陈童以为是牛,吓到了,急忙从县政府门口逃脱,走近医院发现是老虎,就跳入医院。

In the midst of this kind of crazy tiger infestation, in the 1930s, in Suhu Village, Xuwen, Guangdong, several villagers mistakenly took a tiger cub as a wild cat cub and brought it back to feed. This caused a large group of tigers to besiege the village. The villagers recalled that at that time, the village was full of tigers roaring one after another, and the number of villagers did not dare to go out to count. Later, the villagers released the tiger cubs and the tigers gradually left. As a result of this encounter, Xuwen Suhu Village in Guangdong has also become a well-known place.

1930年代,在这种疯狂的老虎侵扰中,广东徐闻的苏湖村有几个村民错误地将虎崽当作野猫崽带回了家。这导致大批老虎围困该村。村民们回忆说,那时村里到处都是老虎,一个又一个的吼叫,许多村民不敢出门算数。后来,村民释放了虎崽,老虎逐渐离开了。这次相遇的结果,广东徐闻苏湖村也成为了一个著名的地方。

The experience of Suhu Village in Xuwen, Guangdong in the 1930s was a precursor to Baihuwei Village in Hunan Passage in 1957.

1930年代在广东徐闻的苏湖村的经历是1957年湖南过境白虎围村的先驱。

At the time when Gaoping Village in Tongdao County, Hunan Province encountered the Baihuwei Village Incident in 1957, from 1952 to 1962, more than 2,000 people were killed in Hunan Province.

1957年(从1952年到1962年),湖南省通道县高坪村遭遇白虎围村事件时,湖南省有2,000多人被杀。

In fact, the tiger infestation in Hunan is also closely related to the population explosion in Hunan. In the early Qing Dynasty, after a long period of war, the population of Hunan fell to only 910,000. However, in the 22nd year of Daoguang (1842), the population of Hunan had exceeded 20 million. Large-scale population expansion and forest land reclamation Against this background, Hunan's records of "tigers walking and cannibalism" began to appear in an endless stream.

实际上,湖南的老虎出没也与湖南的人口爆炸密切相关。在清朝初期,经过长期的战争,湖南的人口减少到只有91万人。然而,在道光二十二年(1842年),湖南人口已超过2000万。大规模人口扩张和林地开垦在这种背景下,湖南关于“老虎行走和自相残杀”的记录开始层出不穷。

In the 1950s at the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, in view of the rampant tiger infestation in Hunan, officials began to organize a tiger team to fight the tiger.

中华人民共和国成立之初的1950年代,鉴于湖南虎的猖in,官员们开始组织一支虎队与虎作斗争。

At that time, the tiger infestation in Leiyang, Hunan was the most serious. In 1952, more than 120 people were killed by tigers in the entire Leiyang County. The highest peak occurred in one day and 32 people were killed by tigers. Horror record of what tigers eat.

当时,湖南Lei阳的老虎侵扰最为严重。 1952年,整个Lei阳县有120多人被老虎杀死。最高峰发生在一天之内,有32人被老虎杀死。老虎吃什么的恐怖记录。

At this time, in November 1952, Yang Zezhi, the county magistrate of Leiyang, Hunan, began to organize tiger teams everywhere in Leiyang to eliminate harm to the people. After that, from 1952 to 1959, Leiyang fought a total of 168 Tigers. Among them, the Tigers team led by "Tiger King" Chen Qifang beat 138 Tigers.

此时,1952年11月,湖南Lei阳县长杨泽志开始在Lei阳各地组织老虎队,以消除对人民的伤害。此后,从1952年到1959年,Lei阳共与168虎作战。其中,以“虎王”陈其芳为首的老虎队击败了138只老虎。

Previously, in 1952, when the tiger was most affected in Leiyang, Hunan, Chen Qifang’s 14-year-old grandson Chen Qingnai was bitten and killed by a tiger and ate only one human leg. Since then, Chen Qifang has been avenging his life. He took his two sons, father and son, to avenge tigers everywhere. During the peak period, Chen Qifang and his son took tiger fighters and hunted more than 40 tigers in one year.

此前,在1952年,当老虎在湖南Lei阳受灾最严重时,陈其芳14岁的孙子陈庆乃被老虎咬伤并杀死,只吃了一条人的腿。从那时起,陈其芳一直在报仇。他带着他的两个儿子,父亲和儿子,到处为老虎报仇。在高峰时期,陈其芳和他的儿子带着老虎斗士,一年内猎杀了40多只老虎。

By the end of 1957, Chen Qifang was specially invited to Beijing due to the astonishing number of fighting tigers. He was personally received by Premier Zhou and became the well-deserved "tiger king" in Hunan and even China.

1957年底,由于打虎的数目惊人,陈其芳被特别邀请到北京。他受到周总理的亲自接待,成为湖南乃至中国当之无愧的“老虎王”。

Due to the raging tigers, in February 1959, the Ministry of Forestry issued an order to classify South China tigers as harmful animals in the same category as bears, leopards, and wolves, calling on hunters to "go all out to kill them." After nearly 20 years of a large-scale "killing beast movement", from 1949 to 1964, in the fifteen years from 1949 to 1964, the number of tigers that were publicly counted in Hunan alone reached 647. By 1964 , As there are no more tigers to fight, the last tiger team in Hunan Province has been disbanded.

由于老虎的肆虐,林业部于1959年2月发布命令,将华南虎归类为与熊,豹和狼同类的有害动物,呼吁猎人“全力以赴杀害它们”。在经历了将近20年的大规模“杀死野兽运动”之后,从1949年到1964年,从1949年到1964年的15年中,仅在湖南公开计数的老虎数量就达到了647只。到1964年,由于没有更多的老虎打架,湖南省最后一支老虎队已经解散。

Xu Wen, Guangdong, who was once a tiger infestation, has never seen a tiger haunt since the last tiger was killed in 1960.

自1960年杀害最后一只老虎以来,广东徐雯曾经是虎的出没之地,从没有见过老虎出没过。

According to statistics by Xu Zhiqing, a zoologist from the Chongqing Museum of Natural History, in the early 1950s of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, there were about 4,000 South China tigers in the country. According to public statistics, from 1950 to 1960, at least 3,000 South China tigers were hunted and killed throughout the country. Tigers, most of them are South China tigers.

根据重庆自然历史博物馆动物学家徐志清的统计,在中华人民共和国成立的1950年代初期,该国大约有4000只华南虎。根据公开统计,从1950年到1960年,全国至少有3,000只华南虎被猎杀。老虎,其中大多数是华南虎。

In November 1986, a South China tiger cub was captured by a clip and died of injuries. This was the last time the State Forestry Administration received a report of a wild South China tiger. Since then, it has never been reported in China. See the official record of the wild South China tiger.

1986年11月,一个华南虎崽被一个夹子抓住,死于伤亡。这是国家林业局最后一次收到有关中国南方野生老虎的报告。从那时起,它在中国从未被报道过。参见野生华南虎的官方记录。

So far, the tigers, which have been galloping on the land of China since human records, have gradually entered the path of extinction with the extinction of Xinjiang tigers, the decline of Siberian tigers, and the disappearance of wild South China tigers.

迄今为止,自人类记录以来一直在中国土地上飞奔的老虎,随着新疆虎的灭绝,西伯利亚虎的衰落以及野生华南虎的消失而逐渐进入灭绝的道路。

And the incident in Baihuwei Village in Hunan Province in 1957, only more than 60 years have passed, all this sounds like a dream yesterday.

1957年在湖南省白虎围村发生的事件已经过去了60多年,这一切听起来像是在做梦。

This article is the original content of the NetEase News•NetEase New Humanities Wave Project Signed Account [Favorite History]. Unauthorized reprinting of the account is prohibited.

本文是网易新闻•网易新人文浪潮项目签名帐户[收藏夹历史]的原始内容。禁止擅自转载该帐户。

 
 
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